The Company has an internal control system designed and implemented according to the framework and principles as advocated by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) in 2013. The system thus developed facilitates the Group to achieve effectiveness and efficiency of operations, reliability of financial reporting and compliance of laws and regulations. The main components of the framework and the underlying principles that the Group observes are as follows:

  • Control Environment

  • Sound control environment is established by obtaining commitment at all levels to integrity and ethical values, appointing independent directors’ oversight, enacting structures, organizations and processes with clear reporting lines, authorities and responsibilities, developing competences, and holding people accountable to internal control.

  • Risk Assessment

  • The risk assessment component under the COSO framework complements that under the International Standard ISO31000. It emphasizes that clear objectives be firstly specified and risks to the achievement of objectives are then identified with specific reference to the need for considering potential for fraud and impact of significant internal and external changes.

  • Control

  • Control activities are selected and developed as part of the treatment of risks identified. Controls are developed through policies and procedures, along with information technology controls selected and developed where appropriate.

  • Information and Communication

  • This component is concerned with establishing internal and external communication to provide the Group with quality information needed to carry out day-to-day controls in support of the achievement of its objectives. The communication component under the COSO framework and that under the International Standard ISO31000 are two sides of the same coin, with the former emphasizing on information required to support the achievement of objectives and the latter, on information required to address issues arising from risks or the impact of uncertainty on the achievement of objectives.

  • Monitoring

  • It refers to ongoing and separate evaluations conducted to ascertain whether material controls are appropriately developed and functioning effectively. Internal control deficiencies identified are evaluated and communicated to appropriate stakeholders.

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